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如何培养翻译意识?_瑞科上海翻译公司
来源:http://www.drleechina.com  日期:2020-10-06
若何培育翻译认识?_瑞科上海翻译公司

  一个好的翻译人员必需存在高高在上的视角,要理解翻译的真理是甚么。要念进步汉英翻译程度,必需增强对上述各类认识的培育。必需养成多层次、多角度的思维习惯。翻译认识跟技能培育方式包罗的内容很多,好比:
  要对翻译的重要性有深刻的、充足的意识;要长于深化天精确天明白中文原文的意义;要留神各行各业的分歧术语的取舍。
  翻译认识跟技能的培育须要波及以下几个方面:
  第一:要对翻译的重要性有深刻的、充足的意识,翻译的对与错、好与坏有时会发生绝然分歧的后果。例如,海角天涯:不是the End of the World (应为Land’s End / End of the Earth) 。再如,一小时内免费送机票上门:不是We give you tickets free of charge within one hour.(应为We offer free delivery of your air tickets within one hour after your booking confirmation.)
  第二:要长于细心天、深化天、精确天明白中文原文的意义。那是因为精确的明白是做好翻译的条件。例如,摸着石头过河:不是crossing the river by feeling the stones。(而是wade across the stream by feeling the way )精确的做法该当是依照上面的步调来做:
  1.“摸着石头过河”的字面意义若何明白?
  2.它有甚么暗含或延长的意义?
  3.英语里有无不异或近似的说法?.若是有,便可以间接借用;若是不,是停止直译仍是意译?
  4.若是直译为 crossing the river by feeling the stones是不是能被外国人明白?
  5.过河是搭船过(crossing by boat)仍是淌水过(wading across),动词用甚么情势?
  6.这里的河是大河、中河仍是小河 (river stream brook etc.)?
  7.摸的方法是用手摸仍是用脚触?
  8.石头是大石头仍是小石头(rock stone pebble etc.)?
  9.若是意译为 learning by experiment / by trial and error是不是可取?
  10.直译跟意译相结合wading across the stream by feeling the way若何?
  第三:中文跟英文的对应词有时意义并不相同或许没有完全相同,不克不及照字面翻译。例如,他的英语道得实好,便像外国人一样。不是He speaks English so well he sounds like a foreigner.而是He speaks English so well he sounds like a native speaker.
  拉动经济增加:不是pull economic growth,而是push/lift/increase/boost/stimulate/spur/drive/fuel/speed up/accelerate/generate/ fire up/ propel/ facilitate/reinforce/aid/assist/support/promote/encourage/foster/(sustain/maintain)。
  素质教育:不是quality education,而是caliber-focused education 或trait-centered education。
  第四:有时候中文字里的意义抒发没有充足,部门信息被省略了或被潜藏起来了。例如,特区是个窗口,是技巧的窗口,经管的窗口,常识的窗口,也是对外政策的窗口。不是:The special zone is a window. It is a widow for introducing technology management and knowledge. It is also a window for foreign policy. 而是The special economic zones are a window opening onto the outside world. They are a window through which to bring in from abroad sophisticated technology advanced managerial expertise and up-to-date know-how. It is also a window through which to disseminate China’s external policies.
  再如,退耕还林:不是return farmland to forest,而该当是restore “woodland-converted farm-plots” back for afforesting 。春运:不是spring transportation,而是the rush / peak season of passenger transportation during the Spring Festival。
  第五:有些中文词语不甚么特别涵义,而与之绝对应的英文词语却有着特别的涵义。例如,与“自制”、“价廉”绝对应的“cheap”它有时候会带有褒义,成为“质次价低”的意,如cheap jewelries cheap dresses cheap furniture 等。咱们可以道I bought a cheap watch for my child,对小孩无所谓;但不克不及道I bought a cheap dress for my girlfriend. 由于如许说会冲犯对方。正在后一种环境下必需用inexpensive一词。
  第六:制止用中式英语停止抒发,而要尽量用地讲的英语停止抒发。倘若咱们要把“我过来学过一些法语,但此刻皆记了,皆还给教员了”这句话翻译成英语,最好不要道 I learned some French in the past. Now I have forgotten it. I’ve returned it to the teacher. 比力好的说法是 I used to know some French but I’ve forgotten it. It has found its way back to my teacher.
  再好比咱们要用英语道“我攒了一大堆赃衣服,等着周末去洗,”最好不要道I have accumulated a large amount of dirty clothes. I’m going to wash them at the weekend. 比力好的说法是 I have a lot of laundry to catch up at the weekend.
  第七:依据分歧场所,英语的抒发有严肃(formal) 与随便(informal) 之分。好比“制止抽烟”(No Smoking)、“请勿吸烟”(Thank you for not smoking) 跟“为了你跟别人的安康,请勿正在此抽烟”(For hygiene’s sake please refrain yourself from smoking in this room.)上面两组例子中皆各包括有formal- normal - informal 三种体裁气势派头(style):
  Please await instructions before dispatching items.
  Please wait for instructions before sending items off.
  Don’t send anything off until you’re told to do so.
  Essential measures should be undertaken at the earliest opportunity.
  One should undertake any necessary measures at the earliest opportunity.
  You should do whatever you have to as soon as you can.
  第八:要留神各行各业的分歧术语的取舍。好比咱们要把“专业签证职员”翻译成英语,那么咱们就要依照外交用语的习气把它翻译为visa officers,而没有该当照字面上翻译成specialized visa personnel。“安居工程” 的英译不是housing project for low-income urban residents,而该当依照社会经济用语的习气翻译为the Affordable Housing Program; “信息化”的英译不是informatization 或informationization,而该当依照高科技行业习气翻译为the spreading / sweeping information explosion / the information explosion process / trend; “外资企业”的英译不是overseas-funded enterprises而该当依照外贸行业习气翻译为enterprises with foreign investment / enterprises with foreign elements;再好比,高速公路上的警示语“请勿疲惫驾驶,”翻译成英语不是Don’t drive tiredly,依照交通法规术语该当翻译为Drowsy driving is dangerous 或Drive alert arrive alive。
  第九:留神汉语跟英语之间的文化差异。把“相声”翻译成英语不克不及只是翻译其情势,还要翻译其内在。翻译成cross talk 外国人没有明确;不如翻译为comic dialogue 更好懂。再如,假定咱们要把“以外贸为龙头”翻译成英语,能不克不及间接翻译为with foreign trade as the dragon head呢?如许翻译是很易让外国人明确的,由于“以……为龙头”这个说法是源自耍龙灯的风俗,而大都外国人没有必然熟习中国人的那一风俗。为了取得好的翻译后果,最好是用可能超过文明阻碍的表达方法,如“火车头”或“旗舰”:with foreign trade as the locomotive / flagship。
  可是不克不及机器天看待所有近似的翻译问题,咱们的脑筋里该当有一点辩证法。好比汉语的“鱼米之乡”(land of fish and rice),正在英语里有一个近似的说法land of milk and honey,但因为land of fish and rice 外国人也能明白,不会形成跨化交换的阻碍,以是咱们可以采取land of fish and rice的说法,以保存一点中国的特征。
  第十:关于暗含的意义,必需把它明确天翻译出来,如许便于本国读者明白。例如,”东边日出西边雨,讲是无晴却有阴”中的“阴”字,它是个双关语,有“晴和”跟“恋爱”的两重意义。咱们正在翻译的时间,必需做到两者统筹:
  It’s sunny in the east but in the west it’s raining hard.
  Whether rain or sunshine he’s the sunshine in my heart.
  再如,“这类鞋油为你足下增光”中的“足下”也是个双关语,翻译的时间也必需把两层意义皆表达出来:This shoe shine shines your shoes and you look great.
  第十一:有时候,好比翻译诗句,光翻译字面上的意义是不敷的,借必需把字里行间的深度、力气跟美感表达出来。例如,朱门酒肉臭,路有冻死骨:不是 Wines and meats become rotten in the mansions; Dead bones become rotten at the doors of them, 而是:In the mansions rolling luxury allows wine and meat to go rotten away;On the streets grinding poverty causes dead bodies to freeze and decay.
  第十二:汉语跟英语正在语法语序跟句子布局上皆有很大的不同。是以,正在停止中译英的时间必需要思量到这些方面的变更。例如,改革开放开放取得了极大的造诣:不是The economic reform and the opening-up have made great achievements. 而是把“极大的造诣”看成主语,把自动语态酿成被动语态:Great achievements have been made in the economic reform and in our efforts to open-up China to the outside world.
  综上所述,一个好的翻译人员必需存在高高在上的视角,要理解翻译的真理是甚么。要念进步汉英翻译程度,必需增强对上述各类认识的培育。必需养成多层次、多角度的思维习惯。

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